Causes of Fissures
Fissure is a cut in the external skin layer called mucosa. This is a small tearing of the moist skin around the anus, thus called as Anal Fissure. Anal fissure is the cracking of skin due to external force or pressure applied on the moist skin. It causes pain around the anus and bleeding during passing stools. This is usually self treatable but sometimes require medical intervention like pain killers, topical lotions or even surgery in severe cases.
Anal fissure is of two types:
Acute anal fissure:
This type of fissure lasts for 4 to 6 weeks and usually subsides with or without treatment.
Chronic anal fissure:
Chronic anal fissure lasts more than 6 weeks and require long term treatment.
- Constipation: it is the most common cause for an anal fissure. Passing hard and large stools cause a crack in the anal mucosal tissue. When you pass hard stools, pressure is put on anal muscles or anal sphincter and it excretes out fecal matter but tears the surrounding anal muscles/tissue.
- If constipation is corrected, anal fissure can be cured. Take dietary fibre and increase water intake to manage constipation. Exercise and active life style also combats constipation. Sedentary life style forms the reason for constipation and other many health related problems.
- Vaginal child birth: women undergoing normal vaginal delivery give birth to the baby through the vaginal birth canal. If the baby weight is heavy more than 3.5kg, it is termed as big baby and normal delivery with big baby is tough, as it puts pressure on the vaginal muscles and tears the surrounding tissues. If the baby head is big, it comes out with lot of pressure on the detrusor muscles and anal sphincter.
- Blood flow: normal blood flow is required to maintain the bowel movements. Decreased blood flow to anorectal area causes ischemia and simultaneously causes anal fissure
- Performing sinful acts: physical intimacy or sexual intercourse performed in sinful manner causes ill health effects. Anal intercourse causes pressure on the sphincter muscles and tends to tear and fissure is formed.
- Other causes for anal fissure are HIV, syphilis, tuberculosis, anal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease like crohn’s disease.